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Old 12-09-2009, 01:33 AM   #1
UNIXgod
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UNIXgod's Official UNIX/Linux SSD Guide

UNIXgod's Official UNIX/Linux SSD Guide

With the emergence of solid state disk drives I figured I'd write up some notes on my experience as well as consolidate information from my own research.

Aligning filesystems to the drive:

Code:
# fdisk -H 224 -S 56 /dev/sdx
or

Code:
# cfdisk -h 224 -S 56 /dev/sdx
If your starting sector is a multiple of 1024 your ready to proceed. To test this view the output this way:

Code:
#fdisk -lu
Prefer ext4 until btrfs is stable*

to create /boot without journaling:
Code:
#mke2fs -t ext4 -O ^has_journal /dev/sdx
for /root /usr /var /var/tmp /home /opt ... well you get the idea

Code:
#mke2fs -t ext4 -E stripe-width=128 /dev/sdx1
consider using tmpfs to create a ram drive for compiling. Confirm your kernel has virtual memory file system support built in. If not add it in and compile a new kernel.
Code:
File systems --->
    Pseudo filesystems ---> 
        [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
you can then create your ram disk entry in fstab like so:
Code:
tmpfs     /tmp     tmpfs      defaults,noatime,mode=1777
Gentoo linux compiles everything just short of the kernel in /var/tmp/portage so I created a tmpfs there as well:
Code:
tmpfs   /var/tmp/portage tmpfs    noatime    0 0
adding size=1000M to the tmpfs entry in fstab will change the size of the filesystem to your personal preference. If the value is not set it will automatically set itself to half your ram. mounting your ram drive is as simple as executing mount -a

If you have your old hdd laying around consider using it for swap and /var and /media (or /bak)

Also turn off atime**
ext4 supports trim. To enable trim use discard when mounting.
my /etc/fstab where sda is my X25-M gen2 ssd and sdb is my velociraptor hdd:

Code:
/dev/sda3               /boot           ext2            noauto,noatime  1 2
/dev/sda5               /               ext4            discard,noatime         0 1
/dev/sdb1               none            swap            sw              0 0
/dev/sdb2               /var            ext4            noatime         0 0
/dev/sda6               /usr            ext4            discard,noatime         0 0
/dev/sda7               /home           ext4            discard,noatime         0 0
/dev/sdb3               /media          ext4            noatime         0 0
tmpfs                   /var/tmp/portage tmpfs          noatime         0 0
tmpfs                   /tmp             tmpfs          defaults,noatime,mode=1777              0 0

/dev/cdrom              /mnt/cdrom      auto            noauto,ro       0 0
#/dev/fd0               /mnt/floppy     auto            noauto          0 0
Firefox/Icecat - Use memory cache instead of disk cache
Open Firefox/Icecat -> Type about:config into the address bar -> Enter -> double-click browser.cache.disk.enable to set the value to False -> Right-Click anywhere -> New -> Integer -> Preference Name "disk.cache.memory.capacity" -> value memory size in KB. Enter 32768 for 32MB, 65536 for 64MB, 131072 for 128MB, etc. -> restart Firefox/Icecat

To reset the drive to
factory default write performance
use a live bootable cd/dvd to run ATA Secure Erase.
DISCLAIMER: This will erase all your data, and will not be recoverable by even data recovery services.
DISCLAIMER: If you hit kernel or firmware bugs (which are plenty with not widely-tested features such as ATA Secure Erase) this procedure might render the drive unusable or crash the computer it's running on.

I used Gentoo amd64 minimal 20091203.iso to run this and it worked fine.

WARNING: To successfully issue an ATA Security Erase command you need to first set a user password. This step should NOT be omitted. When the user password is set the drive will be locked after next power cycle (the drive will deny normal access until unlocked with the correct password).

run this command:
Code:
hdparm -I /dev/sdx
confirm "not frozen" under security. If the command output shows "frozen" you cannot continue to the next step.
***Below are instructions on how to unfreeze your drive if you suffer from the issue.

should look like this:
Code:
Security: 
       Master password revision code = 65534
               supported
       not     enabled
       not     locked
       not     frozen
       not     expired: security count
               supported: enhanced erase
      2min for SECURITY ERASE UNIT. 2min for ENHANCED SECURITY ERASE UNIT.
Set the user password:
Code:
hdparm --user-master u --security-set-pass Unixgod /dev/sdx
should output:
Code:
security_password="Unixgod"

/dev/sdd:
Issuing SECURITY_SET_PASS command, password="Unixgod", user=user, mode=high
confirm it took with
Code:
hdparm -I /dev/sdx
output:
Code:
Security: 
       Master password revision code = 65534
               supported
               enabled
       not     locked
       not     frozen
       not     expired: security count
               supported: enhanced erase
       Security level high
       2min for SECURITY ERASE UNIT. 2min for ENHANCED SECURITY ERASE UNIT.
run the ATA Secure Erase command
Code:
time hdparm --user-master u --security-erase Unixgod /dev/sdx
It took about 40 seconds on my intel 160gb x25-m. The password is reset after completion which can be confirmed with hdparm -I as well as the drive will now act as efficient as it did when you got it from the factory.

*** I reciently aquired a x220 thinkpad and popped my ssd in there. The bios puts the drive in frozen state which stops the user from updating firmware or doing a reset on the drive. I found that booking from ubuntu live use( or cd) once in the environment you can close the laptop lid putting the laptop to sleep. Open the lid back up will wake the machine and the drive will be back to 'not frozen' state.

Additional information for those with intel drives

2CV102G9 output:
Code:
# hdparm -I /dev/sda

/dev/sda:

ATA device, with non-removable media
        Model Number:       INTEL SSDSA2M160G2GC                    
        Serial Number:      CVP*******160AGN                      
        Firmware Revision:  2CV102G9                                
        Transport:          Serial, ATA8-AST, SATA 1.0a, SATA II Extensions, SATA Rev 2.5, SATA Rev 2.6                                                               
Standards:                                                                         
        Used: ATA/ATAPI-7 T13 1532D revision 1                                     
        Supported: 7 6 5 4                                                         
Configuration:                                                                     
        Logical         max     current                                            
        cylinders       16383   16383                                              
        heads           16      16                                                 
        sectors/track   63      63                                                 
        --                                                                         
        CHS current addressable sectors:   16514064                                
        LBA    user addressable sectors:  268435455                                
        LBA48  user addressable sectors:  312581808                                
        Logical  Sector size:                   512 bytes                          
        Physical Sector size:                   512 bytes                          
        device size with M = 1024*1024:      152627 MBytes                         
        device size with M = 1000*1000:      160041 MBytes (160 GB)                
        cache/buffer size  = unknown                                               
        Nominal Media Rotation Rate: Solid State Device                            
Capabilities:                                                                      
        LBA, IORDY(can be disabled)                                                
        Queue depth: 32                                                            
        Standby timer values: spec'd by Standard, no device specific minimum       
        R/W multiple sector transfer: Max = 16  Current = 1                        
        DMA: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2 udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 udma5 *udma6          
             Cycle time: min=120ns recommended=120ns                               
        PIO: pio0 pio1 pio2 pio3 pio4                                              
             Cycle time: no flow control=120ns  IORDY flow control=120ns           
Commands/features:                                                                 
        Enabled Supported:                                                         
           *    SMART feature set                                                  
                Security Mode feature set                                          
           *    Power Management feature set                                       
           *    Write cache                                                        
           *    Look-ahead                                                         
           *    Host Protected Area feature set                                    
           *    WRITE_BUFFER command                                               
           *    READ_BUFFER command                                                
           *    NOP cmd                                                            
           *    DOWNLOAD_MICROCODE                                                 
           *    SET_MAX security extension                                         
           *    48-bit Address feature set                                         
           *    Device Configuration Overlay feature set                           
           *    Mandatory FLUSH_CACHE                                              
           *    FLUSH_CACHE_EXT                                                    
           *    SMART error logging                                                
           *    SMART self-test                                                    
           *    General Purpose Logging feature set                                
           *    WRITE_{DMA|MULTIPLE}_FUA_EXT                                       
           *    64-bit World wide name                                             
           *    IDLE_IMMEDIATE with UNLOAD                                         
           *    WRITE_UNCORRECTABLE_EXT command                                    
           *    {READ,WRITE}_DMA_EXT_GPL commands                                  
           *    Segmented DOWNLOAD_MICROCODE                                       
           *    Gen1 signaling speed (1.5Gb/s)                                     
           *    Gen2 signaling speed (3.0Gb/s)                                     
           *    Native Command Queueing (NCQ)                                      
           *    Phy event counters                                                 
                Device-initiated interface power management                        
           *    Software settings preservation                                     
Security:                                                                          
        Master password revision code = 65534                                      
                supported                                                          
        not     enabled                                                            
        not     locked                                                             
        not     frozen                                                             
        not     expired: security count                                            
                supported: enhanced erase                                          
        2min for SECURITY ERASE UNIT. 2min for ENHANCED SECURITY ERASE UNIT.       
Logical Unit WWN Device Identifier: 50015179590b07e3                               
        NAA             : 5                                                        
        IEEE OUI        : 001517                                                   
        Unique ID       : 9590b07e3                                                
Checksum: correct                                                                  

#############################################################

# hdparm -i /dev/sda

/dev/sda:

 Model=INTEL, FwRev=2CV102G9, SerialNo=CVP*******160AGN  
 Config={ Fixed }                                        
 RawCHS=16383/16/63, TrkSize=0, SectSize=0, ECCbytes=0   
 BuffType=unknown, BuffSize=unknown, MaxMultSect=16, MultSect=1
 CurCHS=16383/16/63, CurSects=16514064, LBA=yes, LBAsects=312581808
 IORDY=on/off, tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120}, tDMA={min:120,rec:120}  
 PIO modes:  pio0 pio3 pio4                                        
 DMA modes:  mdma0 mdma1 mdma2                                     
 UDMA modes: udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 udma5 *udma6            
 AdvancedPM=no WriteCache=enabled                                  
 Drive conforms to: ATA/ATAPI-7 T13 1532D revision 1:  ATA/ATAPI-2,3,4,5,6,7

 * signifies the current active mode
2CV102HD firmare (trim support)
Code:
# hdparm -I /dev/sda

/dev/sda:

ATA device, with non-removable media
        Model Number:       INTEL SSDSA2M160G2GC                    
        Serial Number:       CVP*******160AGN                     
        Firmware Revision:  2CV102HD                                
        Transport:          Serial, ATA8-AST, SATA 1.0a, SATA II Extensions, SATA Rev 2.5, SATA Rev 2.6                                                               
Standards:                                                                         
        Used: ATA/ATAPI-7 T13 1532D revision 1                                     
        Supported: 7 6 5 4                                                         
Configuration:                                                                     
        Logical         max     current                                            
        cylinders       16383   16383                                              
        heads           16      16                                                 
        sectors/track   63      63                                                 
        --                                                                         
        CHS current addressable sectors:   16514064                                
        LBA    user addressable sectors:  268435455                                
        LBA48  user addressable sectors:  312581808                                
        Logical  Sector size:                   512 bytes                          
        Physical Sector size:                   512 bytes                          
        device size with M = 1024*1024:      152627 MBytes                         
        device size with M = 1000*1000:      160041 MBytes (160 GB)                
        cache/buffer size  = unknown                                               
        Nominal Media Rotation Rate: Solid State Device                            
Capabilities:                                                                      
        LBA, IORDY(can be disabled)                                                
        Queue depth: 32                                                            
        Standby timer values: spec'd by Standard, no device specific minimum       
        R/W multiple sector transfer: Max = 16  Current = 16                       
        DMA: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2 udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 udma5 *udma6          
             Cycle time: min=120ns recommended=120ns                               
        PIO: pio0 pio1 pio2 pio3 pio4                                              
             Cycle time: no flow control=120ns  IORDY flow control=120ns           
Commands/features:                                                                 
        Enabled Supported:                                                         
           *    SMART feature set                                                  
                Security Mode feature set                                          
           *    Power Management feature set                                       
           *    Write cache                                                        
           *    Look-ahead                                                         
           *    Host Protected Area feature set                                    
           *    WRITE_BUFFER command                                               
           *    READ_BUFFER command                                                
           *    NOP cmd                                                            
           *    DOWNLOAD_MICROCODE                                                 
                SET_MAX security extension                                         
           *    48-bit Address feature set                                         
           *    Device Configuration Overlay feature set                           
           *    Mandatory FLUSH_CACHE                                              
           *    FLUSH_CACHE_EXT                                                    
           *    SMART error logging                                                
           *    SMART self-test                                                    
           *    General Purpose Logging feature set                                
           *    WRITE_{DMA|MULTIPLE}_FUA_EXT                                       
           *    64-bit World wide name                                             
           *    IDLE_IMMEDIATE with UNLOAD                                         
           *    WRITE_UNCORRECTABLE_EXT command                                    
           *    {READ,WRITE}_DMA_EXT_GPL commands                                  
           *    Segmented DOWNLOAD_MICROCODE                                       
           *    Gen1 signaling speed (1.5Gb/s)                                     
           *    Gen2 signaling speed (3.0Gb/s)                                     
           *    Native Command Queueing (NCQ)                                      
           *    Phy event counters                                                 
                Device-initiated interface power management                        
           *    Software settings preservation                                     
           *    Data Set Management TRIM supported                                 
           *    reserved 69[5]                                                     
           *    Deterministic read after TRIM                                      
Security:                                                                          
        Master password revision code = 65534                                      
                supported                                                          
        not     enabled                                                            
        not     locked                                                             
        not     frozen                                                             
        not     expired: security count                                            
                supported: enhanced erase                                          
        2min for SECURITY ERASE UNIT. 2min for ENHANCED SECURITY ERASE UNIT.       
Logical Unit WWN Device Identifier: 50015179590b07e3                               
        NAA             : 5                                                        
        IEEE OUI        : 001517                                                   
        Unique ID       : 9590b07e3                                                
Checksum: correct                                                                  

################################################################

# hdparm -i /dev/sda

/dev/sda:

 Model=INTEL, FwRev=2CV102HD, SerialNo=CVP*******160AGN
 Config={ Fixed }
 RawCHS=16383/16/63, TrkSize=0, SectSize=0, ECCbytes=0
 BuffType=unknown, BuffSize=unknown, MaxMultSect=16, MultSect=16
 CurCHS=16383/16/63, CurSects=16514064, LBA=yes, LBAsects=312581808
 IORDY=on/off, tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120}, tDMA={min:120,rec:120}
 PIO modes:  pio0 pio3 pio4
 DMA modes:  mdma0 mdma1 mdma2
 UDMA modes: udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 udma5 *udma6
 AdvancedPM=no WriteCache=enabled
 Drive conforms to: ATA/ATAPI-7 T13 1532D revision 1:  ATA/ATAPI-2,3,4,5,6,7

 * signifies the current active mode
Some benchmarks. system specs:
Asus Rampage Extreme x48 (400 fsb)
QX9650 Core 2 Quad Extreme (mild 3.6GHz OC)
4x1Gb Cellshock DDR3 1600MHz 7-7-7-14 (running spec)

lsscsi output:
Code:
# lsscsi                                                                 
[2:0:0:0]    disk    ATA      INTEL SSDSA2M160 2CV1  /dev/sda                     
[3:0:0:0]    disk    ATA      WDC WD1500HLFS-0 04.0  /dev/sdb                     
[5:0:0:0]    cd/dvd  TSSTcorp CDDVDW SH-S223Q  SB02  /dev/sr0                     
[6:0:0:0]    disk    ATA      WDC WD1500ADFD-0 21.0  /dev/sdc
/dev/sda is the X25-M ssd (sata2) (2CV102G9)
/dev/sdb is the WD velociraptor (sata2)
/dev/sdc is the original raptor (sata1)
Code:
# hdparm -tT /dev/sda

/dev/sda:
 Timing cached reads:   18292 MB in  2.00 seconds = 9157.99 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads:  716 MB in  3.00 seconds = 238.29 MB/sec
# hdparm -tT /dev/sdb                                       

/dev/sdb:
 Timing cached reads:   18220 MB in  2.00 seconds = 9121.61 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads:  366 MB in  3.01 seconds = 121.42 MB/sec
# hdparm -tT /dev/sdc                                       

/dev/sdc:
 Timing cached reads:   17896 MB in  2.00 seconds = 8959.16 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads:  248 MB in  3.00 seconds =  82.62 MB/sec
After firmware update 2CV102HD:
Code:
# hdparm -tT /dev/sda

/dev/sda:
 Timing cached reads:   18412 MB in  2.00 seconds = 9218.03 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads:  700 MB in  3.00 seconds = 233.06 MB/sec
Observations
Compile times for my setup showed signifigant improvments. Compiling mozilla-firefox took only six minutes. GNU/icecat only five. kde 4.3 in all it's glory and over 400 packages took around one and a half hours and gnome took about 70 minutes. Kde loads so fast you don't see the animated load screen at all. oh and I can't forget fluxbox takes less than a minute

Further info on FreeBSD, MacOSX(DarwinOS), and solaris at another time. Burn't out and time to sleep.I'm installing an 80 gigger in a mac mini tomorrow for my mother.

I hope this info helps someone. Somewhere.

sources:
*
http://arstechnica.com/open-source/n...rnel-panel.ars
http://thunk.org/tytso/blog/2009/02/...se-block-size/
**
http://torvalds-family.blogspot.com/...ntel-ssds.html
http://ata.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/ATA_Secure_Erase

For anyone who is new to compiling their own kernel here a free book to help you:

http://www.kroah.com/lkn/

PommieB's sticky on Solid State Drives & Controllers

Last edited by UNIXgod; 02-17-2012 at 07:36 PM. Reason: Added link to PommieB's sticky on Solid State Drives & Controllers
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Old 12-28-2009, 05:23 PM   #2
jmknsd
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Nice post, just got an OCZ Vertex Turbo, and am planning on installing ubuntu on it. Looking into updates on TRIM, I have not seen much. Do you have any insights/tips on this?
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Old 12-28-2009, 06:14 PM   #3
UNIXgod
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when btrfs is stable you may want to use that. It will have ssd support built in. aside from that if you plan on building from sources follow my suggestions for using tmpfs as I mentioned should help everything. ATA_TRIM support will be available in a future release of the kernel. For now it's a waiting game.
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Old 12-28-2009, 06:59 PM   #4
slash_2_2000
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I am 100% certain this is an excellent thread which also 100% proves why I've never installed Linux.
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Old 12-28-2009, 10:10 PM   #5
UNIXgod
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Quote:
Originally Posted by slash_2_2000 View Post
I am 100% certain this is an excellent thread which also 100% proves why I've never installed Linux.
I'm glad I helped you. o.O
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Old 02-17-2010, 05:09 PM   #6
bsdunx
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Intel X25-M G2

I've been having issues I tried to align properly but I seem to not be aligned on the NAND writeblock. I am looking to have a 256MB /boot, 38.5GB root, 38.5GB win7, and the rest for mostly static data. I'm not sure what the partition table should be looking like afterwards and I keep getting conflicting information about the right fdisk options. EDIT[0] - It wasn't misaligned. But reads seem to be a bit slow when going through the filesystem layer on my ~38GB ext4 reads are 160MB/s. Does partition size matter at all or is it performance regressions in 2.6.32.

Last edited by bsdunx; 02-18-2010 at 07:00 AM.
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Old 02-18-2010, 07:33 AM   #7
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Thanks for your Time on this. I'm planning to use this in the next month or two.
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Old 07-21-2010, 09:30 PM   #8
iczerjones
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Pretty epic. Just put this post into my personal wiki at work. Thank you!
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Old 05-08-2011, 03:24 PM   #9
UNIXgod
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I updated some information on how to deal with issues that may arise with frozen state not being disabled.
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Old 05-08-2011, 03:57 PM   #10
jmknsd
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Would you say btrfs is stable to use in a desktop system now? (With the understanding that I consider SSDs to be fairly unreliable as it is and have taken appropriate measures to prevent data loss)
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Old 05-08-2011, 04:21 PM   #11
UNIXgod
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jmknsd View Post
Would you say btrfs is stable to use in a desktop system now? (With the understanding that I consider SSDs to be fairly unreliable as it is and have taken appropriate measures to prevent data loss)
You are free to run whatever software you want as long as you can live with the consequences if something goes wrong.

Their wiki states that it is still a work in progress. Though there are features implemented for ssd drives there is currently no fsck utility. With that in mind I can't recommend btrfs. I will update the sticky once the filesystem has reached it's apex for day to day use.

I experimented with btrfs last year for a bit. At that time it was slower than ext4 for most desktop use cases. This may have changed.

btrfs is the future of modern linux filesystems. As time goes on it will become stable and faster with support for ssd devices built in as well as zfs style features.

If you decide to run btrfs I'd be interested in hearing about your experience with it.
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